Thomas E. FitzGerald
This essay is intended to be a guide for further investigation into aspects of Orthodox Christianity in general and the Orthodox in America in particular. It is not meant to be an exhaustive bibliography. Special attention is given to the writings of American Orthodox theologians and church historians.
GENERAL HISTORIES AND INTRODUCTIONS TO ORTHODOX THOUGHT
General introductions to the history of the Orthodox Church can be found in John Meyendorff's The Orthodox Church (Crestwood, NY: St. Vladimir's Seminary Press, 1981) and Alexander Schmemann's The Historical Road of Eastern Orthodoxy (Crest-wood, NY: St. Vladimir's Seminary Press, 1977). The most popular general history, and often more accessible than the two books previously mentioned, is from the British Orthodox bishop Timothy (Kallistos) Ware, The Orthodox Church (New York: Penguin Books, rev. ed., 1993).
For studies dealing with particular historical periods of the Orthodox Church, see John Meyendorff, Imperial Unity (Crestwood, NY: St. Vladimir's Seminary Press, 1989) and Byzantium and the Rise of Russia (Crestwood, NY: St. Vladimir's Seminary Press, 1989); Richard Haugh, Photius and the Carolingians (Belmont, MA: Nordland, 1975); Anthony-Emil Tachiaos, Cyril and Methodios of Thessalonica: The Acculturation of the Slavs (Thessaloniki: Rekos, 1989); Demetrios Constantellos, Byzantine Philanthropy and Social Welfare (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1968); J. M. Hussey, The Orthodox Church in the Byzantine Empire (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1986).
Among the best general histories of the Byzantine period are George Ostrogorsky, History of the Byzantine State (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1968) and Dimitri Obolinsky, The Byzantine Commonwealth: Eastern Europe, 500–1453 (London: Cardinal, 1971).
Issues related to the schism between Eastern and Western Christianity are discussed in John Meyendorff's Byzantine Theology (New York: Fordham University Press, 1974). Some aspects of the church under Ottoman rule are covered in Steven Runciman's The Great Church in Captivity (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1968).
For developments of the Orthodox Church in Russia in more recent times, see James Cunningham, A Vanquished Hope: Movements for Church Renewal in Russia (Crestwood, NY: St. Vladimir's Seminary Press, 1981); Nicholas Zernov, The Russian Religious Renaissance of the Twentieth Century (London: Darton, Longman and Todd, 1963); Dimitri Pospielovsky, The Russian Church Under the Soviet Regime 1917–1982 (Crestwood, NY: St. Vladimir's Seminary Press, 1984). Essays on recent developments of a number of regional Orthodox churches and jurisdictions are found in Petro Ramet, ed., Eastern Christianity and Politics in the Twentieth Century (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1988).
A valuable introduction to the Oriental Orthodox churches is Azziz S. Atiya, A History of Eastern Christianity (Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 1965). For some aspects of the recent developments between the Orthodox and the Oriental Orthodox, see William Lazareth and Nikos Nissiotis, Does Chalcedon Unite or Divide? (Geneva: World Council of Churches, 1981) and Thomas FitzGerald, «Towards the Reestablishment of Full Communion: The Orthodox-Oriental Orthodox Dialogue,» The Greek Orthodox Theological Review 36:2 (1991), 169–82.
The fundamental themes of Orthodox doctrine and spirituality can be found in Kallistos (Timothy) Ware, The Orthodox Way (Crestwood, NY: St. Vladimir's Seminary Press, 1979). Somewhat less accessible is the classic work by Vladimir Lossky, The Mystical Theology of the Eastern Church (Cambridge: James Clarke, 1951). See also his essays in/n the Image and Likeness of God, ed. John Erickson and Thomas Bird (Crestwood, NY: St. Vladimir's Seminary Press, 1974). Also of importance for the development of Orthodox spirituality is John Meyendorff's St. Gregory Palamas and Orthodox Spirituality (Crestwood, NY: St. Vladimir's Seminary Press, 1974). A popular presentation of Orthodox faith and practice is Anthony Coniaris, Introducing the Orthodox Church (Minneapolis: Light and Life, 1982). A valuable introduction to the Orthodox Church is Jordan Bajis, Common Ground: An Introduction to Eastern Christianity for the American Christian (Minneapolis: Light and Life, 1991).
A very comprehensive study of Orthodox doctrine as it was explicated in its historical context is Jaroslav Pelikan's The Christian Tradition: A History of the Development of Doctrine, Volume 2, The Spirit of Eastern Christendom (600–1700) (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1974). Pelikan also makes reference to the Orthodox, especially in volume 5, Christian Doctrine and Modern Culture (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1989). The author's bibliographical information is exceptional.
The extensive writings of Georges Florovsky have had a powerful influence on Orthodox theologians both in this country and elsewhere. Few themes in Orthodox history and theology escaped his attention. Many of his most important essays have been published in The Collected Works of Georges Florovsky, Volumes I-XIV (Belmont, MA: Nordland-Buchervertriebsanstalt, 1972–89). On Florovsky's career, see Andrew Blane, ed., Georges Florovsky: Russian Intellectual and Orthodox Churchman (Crestwood, NY: St. Vladimir's Seminary Press, 1993).
Alexander Schmemann's many works on Orthodox worship are most valuable in discussing the relationship between worship and belief. See especially The Eucharist (Crestwood, NY: St. Vladimir's Seminary Press, 1988); Of Water and the Spirit (Crestwood, NY: St. Vladimir's Seminary Press, 1974); For the Life of the World: Sacraments and Orthodoxy
(Crestwood, NY: St. Vladimir's Seminary Press, 1973); Great Lent (Crestwood, NY: St. Vladimir's Seminary Press, 1969).
With a rich bibliography of theological sources in Greek, Alkiviadis Calivas addresses a number of issues related to the development of the liturgy in his The Divine Liturgy: The Time of Its Celebration (Thessaloniki: Patriarchal Institute, 1988). The relationship between Scripture and worship is explored by John Breck in his The Power of the Word in the Worshiping Church. Kyriaki FitzGerald relates Orthodox worship to faith development in her Religious Formation and Liturgical Life: An Orthodox Perspective (Ann Arbor, MI: University Microfilm, 1982).
A very popular series containing statements on the spiritual life from the early patristic tradition is The Philokalia, Vols. 1–3, trans, and ed. G.E.H. Palmer, Philip Sherrard, and Kallistos Ware (London: Faber and Faber, 1979–84). A popular expression of Orthodox spirituality is Way of the Pilgrim, trans. R. M. French (London: S.P.C.K., 1963).
The intimate relationship between Orthodox teaching and the organization of the church and the characteristics of its ministries are found in the classic study by John Zizioulas, Being as Communion (Crestwood, NY: St. Vladimir's Seminary Press, 1985). John Erick-son takes up a number of questions regarding church organization in his The Challenge of Our Past (Crestwood, NY: St. Vladimir's Seminary Press, 1991).
A number of recent reference works have been especially sensitive to the need to include essays dealing with the Orthodox. Dictionary of Christianity in America, ed. Daniel Reid, Robert D. Linder, Bruce L. Shelley, and Harry S. Stout (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1990) has a number of essays devoted to the Orthodox themes, as does Dictionary of the Ecumenical Movement, ed. Nicholas Lossky et al. (Geneva: World Council of Churches, 1991). The Encyclopedia of the American Religious Experience, ed. Charles H. Lippy and Peter W. Williams (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1988) has a valuable essay on «Eastern Christianity» by Paul Garrett. The three volumes of Christian Spirituality, ed. Bernard McGinn and John Meyendorff (New York: Crossroad, 1989) have very valuable essays by Orthodox contributors. Edwin S. Gaustad's.4 Documentary History of Religion in America Since 1865 (Grand Rapids: Eerdsmand, 1983) includes a few documents related to the Orthodox. A Roman Catholic theologian, Michael A. Fahey, has produced two valuable bibliographical essays dealing especially with the writings of Orthodox theologians. See his «Orthodox Ecumenism and Theology: 1970–1978,» Theological Studies 39:3 (1978), 446–85; and «Orthodox Ecumenism and Theology: 1978–1983,» Theological Studies 44 (1983), 625–92. Another Roman Catholic theologian, Thomas Bird, has provided a valuable chronicle to events in the Orthodox Church in the journal Diakonia from 1970 to 1975.
THE ORTHODOX CHURCH IN THE UNITED STATES
Extensive studies dealing with aspects of the development of the Orthodox Church in the United States are few. Early movements toward greater unity up until 1970 are discussed in Serafim Surrency's The Quest for Orthodox Church Unity in America (Saints Boris and Gleb Press: New York, 1973). A general history of the Metropolia/Orthodox Church in America with some references to other jurisdictions is Orthodox America: 1784–1976, ed. Constance Tarasar and John Erickson (Syosset, NY: Orthodox Church in America, 1975). Some aspects of the Greek Orthodox Archdiocese are discussed in History of the Greek Orthodox Church in America, ed. Miltiades Efthimiou and George Christopoulos (New York: Greek Orthodox Archdiocese, 1984) and in George Papaioannou's From Mars Hill to Manhattan (Minneapolis: Light and Life, 1976). A brief account of the development of the Greek Orthodox Archdiocese is found in Demetrios Constantelos, Understanding the Greek Orthodox Church: Its Faith, History and Practice (New York: Seabury Press, 1982). The same author has collected a number of documents related to the Greek Orthodox Archdiocese in his Encyclicals and Documents of the Greek Orthodox Archdiocese, 1922–1972 (Thessaloniki: Patriarchal Center for Patristic Studies, 1976). Of historical value is the work done by the Historical Records Survey in its Eastern Orthodox Churches and the Armenian Church in America (New York: Works Project Administration, 1940). This text contains a number of general essays on various jurisdictions, together with a review of their activities in New York City prior to 1940. Although his text is somewhat outdated, Arthur Piepkorn provides a valuable introduction to various Orthodox jurisdictions in his Profiles in Belief: The Religious Bodies in the United States Volume I: Roman Catholic, Old Catholic and Eastern Orthodox (New York: Harper and Row, 1977).
LATE EIGHTEENTH- AND NINETEENTH-CENTURY DEVELOPMENTS AND CONCERNS
Valuable documents related to the Alaskan mission have been collected by Michael Oleska in his Alaskan Missionary Spirituality (New York: Paulist Press, 1987). For a historical introduction to the mission, see his Orthodox Alaska: A Theology of Mission (Crest-wood, NY: St. Vladimir's Seminary Press, 1992). Also of importance are the works by Barbara Smith, Russian Orthodoxy in Alaska (Anchorage: Alaska Historical Resources, 1980); Orthodoxy and Native Americans: The Alaskan Mission (Crestwood, NY: St. Vladimir's Seminary Press, 1980); and Russian America: The Forgotten Frontier (Tacoma: Washington Historical Society, 1990). Paul Garrett's St. Innocent: Apostle to America (Crestwood, NY: St. Vladimir's Seminary Press, 1978) is a comprehensive study that emphasizes the missionary activity of this major personality.
References to the relationship between the immigrants and the early parish and diocesan developments are found in Charles Moschos, Greek Americans: Struggle and Success (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1980); Theodore Saloutos, The Greeks in the United States (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1964); Henry Fairchild, Greek Immigration to the United States (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1911); Lawrence Barringer, Good Victory (Brookline, MA: Holy Cross Orthodox Press, 1985); Paul Robert Magocsi, Our People: Carpatho–Rusyns and Their Descendents in North America (Toronto: Multicultural History Society of Ontario, 1984); Jerome Davis, The Russians and Ruthenians in America: Bolsheviks or Brothers (New York: George H. Doran, 1922). A handy introduction to various immigrant groups can be found in Stephen Thernstrom, ed., Harvard Encyclopedia of American Ethnic Groups (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1980).
More direct references to the church in this period can be found in Alexander Doumouras, «Greek Orthodox Communities in America Before World War I,» SVTQ 11:4 (1967), 177–78; Peter Haskell, «American Civil Religion and Greek Immigration: Religious Confrontation Before the First World War,» SVTQ 18:4 (1974), 166–92; Dimitry Gregorieff, «The Historical Background of Orthodoxy in America,» SVTQ 5:1 (1961), 2–53; Vasile Hategan, Fifty Years of the Romanian Orthodox Church in America (Jackson, MI: Romanian Orthodox Episcopate, 1954).
The movements of Eastern-Rite Catholics into the Orthodox Church are discussed in Keith Russin, «Father Alexis Toth and the Wilkes-Barre Legislation,» SVTQ 16:3 (1972), 128–48 and James Jorgenson, «Fr. Alexis Toth and the Transition of the Greek Catholic Community of Minneapolis to the Russian Orthodox Church,» SVTQ 32:2 (1988), 119–38.
EARLY TWENTIETH-CENTURY DEVELOPMENTS AND CONCERNS
Two prominent leaders of this period are discussed in Leonid Kishkovsky, «Archbishop Tikhon in America,» SVTQ 19:1 (1975), 9–31 and George Bebis, «Metaxakis in Profile,» in History of the Greek Orthodox Church in America, ed. Miltiadis Efthimiou and George Christopoulos (New York: Greek Orthodox Archdiocese, 1984).
The difficulties related to the establishment of the Greek Orthodox Archdiocese are discussed in George Papaioannou, From Mars Hill to Manhattan (Minneapolis: Light and Life, 1976) and his The Odyssey of Hellenism in America (Thessaloniki: Patriarchal Institute, 1985). The work of Patriarch Athenagoras in America is discussed in Dimitrios Tsakonas, A Man Sent by God (Brookline, MA: Holy Cross Orthodox Press, 1977) and Peter Kourides, The Evolution of the Greek Orthodox Church in America and Its Present Problems (New York: Greek Orthodox Archdiocese, 1959). The interplay of church and culture is discussed in Ekaterini Brown, Religion and Ethnicity in Greek Americans (Ann Arbor, MI: University Microfilm, 1977).
The various divisions that afflicted the Russian Orthodox beginning in the 1920s and 1930s are discussed in Joseph Hayden, Slavic Orthodox Christianity in the United States (Ann Arbor, MI: University Microfilm, 1973); Marvin Schrank, «Problems of Orthodoxy in America: The Russian Church,» SVTQ 6:4 (1962), 185–205; Michael Lopuchin, «The Russian Orthodox Church in America: A Psycho-Social View,» SVTQ 8:3 (1964), 131–38; Boris Burden, «The Holy Eastern Orthodox Catholic and Apostolic Church,» Orthodox Catholic Review 1:1 (1927), 1–35.
The perspectives of the Metropolia are found in Basil Benson, A History of the Russian Orthodox Greek Catholic Church of North America (New York: Colonial, 1941) and Metropolitan Leonty, «Problems of the Eastern Orthodox Church in America,» SVTQ 1:1 (1952), 6–12. The positions of the Exarchate of the Moscow Patriarchate are found in Makarios Illinsky, «The Church of Russia and Her American Branch,» One Church 2:11 (1948), 1–12. Finally, the views of the Russian Orthodox Synod Abroad are expressed in John Maximovitch, «The Russian Orthodox Church Outside of Russia,» Orthodox Word 8:2 (1972), 54–65 and Michael Rodzianko, The Truth About the Russian Church Abroad (Jordanville, NY: Holy Trinity Monastery, 1975). Nicholas Zernov provides some valuable background to the origins of the Synod Abroad in his «The First Council of the Russian Orthodox Church Abroad: Notes of One of the Participants,» Eastern Churches Review 7:2 (1975), 165–77. Anton Ugolnik discusses some of the aspects of the development of these jurisdictions in The Illuminating Icon (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdsmans, 1989).
A thorough presentation of the European background for the Russian Orthodox divisions in America can be found in Dimitri Pospielovsky, The Russian Church Under the Soviet Regime 1917–1982 (Crestwood, NY: St. Vladimir's Seminary Press, 1984) and Marc Raeff, Russia Abroad: A Cultural History of Russian Immigration, 1919–1939 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1990).
LATE TWENTIETH-CENTURY ISSUES AND CONCERNS
Alexander Schmemann produced three significant essays that deal with the problems of the Orthodox as they moved out of their isolation and began to be more concerned with unity and mission. See «Problems of Orthodoxy in America: I The Canonical Problem,» SVTQ 8:2 (1964), 67–85; «II The Liturgical Problem,» SVTQ 8:4 (1964), 164–85; and «III The Spiritual Problem,» SVTQ 9:4 (1965), 171–93.
The story of an early ecumenical witness by American Orthodox theologians, especially prior to 1960, has not as yet been fully explored. For some perspectives, see Nicholas Arseniev, «Roots of Russian Ecumenism,» SVTQ 6:1 (1962), 3–15, and «Some Thoughts Concerning the Possibility of Union Between the Orthodox Church and the Catholic Church,» SVTQ 3:2 (1959), 6–10. The observations of Greek Orthodox Archbishop Michael are also of interest; see «The Tensions of the World and Our Unity in Christ, SVTQ 3:1 (1954), 37–40. Early contacts between Orthodox and Anglicans in this country are reviewed in Peter Haskell, «Archbishop Tikhon and Bishop Grafton: An Early Chapter in Anglican-Orthodox Relations in the New World,» SVTQ 11:4(1967), 193–206 and 12:1 (1969), 2–16.
American Orthodox theologians since 1960 have produced many essays on various aspects of the ecumenical movement. The following collections contain a number of significant essays with further biographical information. John Meyendorff et al., The Primacy of Peter in the Orthodox Church (London: Faith Press, 1963); John Meyendorff, Living Tradition (Crestwood, NY: St. Vladimir's Seminary Press, 1978); Alexander Schmemann, Church, World, Mission (Crestwood, NY: St. Vladimir's Seminary Press, 1979); Demetrios Constantelos, ed., Orthodox Theology and Diakonia (Brookline, MA: Hellenic College Press, 1981); Thomas Hopko, All the Fulness of God (Crestwood, NY: St. Vladimir's Seminary Press, 1982); Theodore Stylianopoulos, Good News of Christ (Brookline, MA: Holy Cross Orthodox Press, 1991). A valuable analysis of Orthodox participation in ecumenical dialogues, together with a rich bibliography, is found in Robert Stephanopoulos's, A Study of Recent Greek Orthodox Ecumenical Relations (Ann Arbor, MI: University Microfilm, 1970). Gregory Wiggenbach has produced a valuable introduction to Orthodox ecumenism in his Broken, Yet Never Sundered (Brookline, MA: Holy Cross Orthodox Press, 1987). A valuable collection of documents dealing with Orthodox participation in the ecumenical movement is Constantin Patelos, ed., The Orthodox Church in the Ecumenical Movement, 1902–1977 (Geneva: World Council of Churches, 1978). A brief review of Orthodox involvement in the contemporary ecumenical movement is Thomas FitzGerald, The Ecumenical Patriarchate and the Quest for Christian Unity (Brookline, MA: Holy Cross Orthodox Press, 1990).
Bishop Maximos Aghiourgoussis of Pittsburgh is regarded as one of the foremost Orthodox theologians involved in Orthodox relations with Roman Catholics. See his most recent essay on this topic, «East Meets West: Gifts of the Eastern Tradition to the Whole Church,» SVTQ 37:1 (1993), 3–22.
The grant of autocephaly to the Russian Orthodox Metropolia by the Church of Russia led to the publication of a number of articles and books that dealt with this theme. Alexander Schmemann discusses the position of the Metropolia/Orthodox Church in America in his «A Meaningful Storm: Some Reflections on Autocephaly, Tradition and Ecclesiology,» SVTQ 15:1/2 (1971), 3–27. Alexander Bogelepov provides direction for the actions of the Metropolia in his Towards an American Orthodox Church (New York: Moorehouse Barlow, 1963). A number of valuable documents related to autocephaly are contained in The Autocephaly of the Orthodox Church in America (Crestwood, NY: St. Vladimir's Seminary Press, 1971) and in Nicon Patrinacos, ed., Russian Autocephaly and Orthodoxy in America (New York: Greek Orthodox Archdiocese, 1972). A critique of the act is offered by the Greek theologian Panagiotis Trembelas in his The Autocephaly of the Metropolia in America (Brookline, MA: Holy Cross Theological School Press, 1973).
The position of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople and its role in the church today are discussed by Metropolitan Maximos of Sardis, The Oecumenical Patriarchate in the Orthodox Church (Thessaloniki: Patriarchal Institute, 1976); Lewis Patsavos, «The Primacy of the See of Constantinople in Theory and Practice,» GOTR 27:3/4 (1992), 233–58; John Meyendorff, «The Ecumenical Patriarchate, Seen in the Light of Orthodox Ecclesiology and History,» GOTR 24:2/3 (1979), 226–43.
Three recently published volumes contain valuable essays by American Orthodox theologians dealing with a number of contemporary themes. See John Breck, et al, eds., The Legacy of St. Vladimir (Crestwood, NY: St. Vladimir's Seminary Press, 1990); Theodore Stylianopoulos, ed., Orthodox Perspectives on Pastoral Praxis (Brookline, MA: Holy Cross Orthodox Press, 1988); and Joseph Allen, ed., Orthodox Synthesis: The Unity of Orthodox Theological Thought (Crestwood, NY: St. Vladimir's Seminary Press, 1981); Thomas Hopko, ed., Women and the Priesthood (Crestwood, NY: St. Vladimir's Seminary Press, 1983). A group of Orthodox clergy and laity has produced a number of provocative essays dealing with unity and renewal in Stephen Sfekas and George Matsoukas, eds., Project for Orthodox Renewal (Chicago: Orthodox Christian Laity, 1993).
A number of editorials by John Meyendorff that appeared in the newspaper The Orthodox Church between 1965 and 1984 have recently been published in two volumes. These succinct statements express the views of Meyendorff on a number of critical issues. See John Meyendorff, Vision of Unity (Crestwood, NY: St. Vladimir's Seminary Press, 1987) and Witness to the World (Crestwood, NY: St. Vladimir's Seminary Press, 1987).
The recent major work by Stanley Harakas, Living the Faith: The Praxis of Eastern Orthodox Ethics (Minneapolis: Light and Life, 1992) is destined to become a classic introduction to social ethics from an Orthodox perspective. Harakas is the foremost Orthodox theologian dealing with issues of ethics and the relationship of church and society. His recent work is a valuable complement to his earlier study Toward Transfigured Life (Minneapolis: Light and Life, 1983). The biographical notes in both provide rich guidance for further investigations. See also his Health and Medicine in the Eastern Orthodox Tradition (New York: Crossroad, 1990).
A valuable guide to Orthodox parishes is Directory of Orthodox Parishes and Institutions in North America, ed. Philip Tamouch (Torrance, CA: Orthodox People Together, 1992).